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I-mutation is particularly visible in the inflectional and derivational morphology of Old English since it affected so many of the Old English vowels.
These are most common forms affected:. A few hundred years after i-umlaut began, another similar change called double umlaut occurred.
That has led to a controversy over when and how i-mutation appeared on these vowels. Perhaps [ original research? However, sporadic place-name attestations demonstrate the presence of the secondary umlaut already for the early 9th century, which makes it likely that all types of umlaut were indeed already present in Old High German, even if they were not indicated in the spelling.
Presumably, they arose already in the early 8th century. In modern German, umlaut as a marker of the plural of nouns is a regular feature of the language, and although umlaut itself is no longer a productive force in German, new plurals of this type can be created by analogy.
Likewise, umlaut marks the comparative of many adjectives and other kinds of derived forms. Because of the grammatical importance of such pairs, the German umlaut diacritic was developed, making the phenomenon very visible.
Mann [man] "man" vs. In various dialects, the umlaut became even more important as a morphological marker of the plural after the apocope of final schwa -e ; that rounded front vowels have become unrounded in many dialects does not prevent them from serving as markers of the plural given that they remain distinct from their non-umlauted counterparts just like in English foot — feet , mouse — mice.
The example Gast "guest" vs. Even plural forms like Fisch e "fish" which had never had a front rounded vowel in the first place were interpreted as such i.
In Old Saxon , umlaut is much less apparent than in Old Norse. It must have had a greater effect than the orthography shows since all later dialects have a regular umlaut of both long and short vowels.
Later developments in Middle Dutch show that long vowels and diphthongs were not affected by umlaut in the more western dialects, including those in western Brabant and Holland that were most influential for standard Dutch.
As a result of this relatively sparse occurrence of umlaut, standard Dutch does not use umlaut as a grammatical marker.
An exception is the noun stad "city" which has the irregular umlauted plural steden. The more eastern dialects of Dutch, including eastern Brabantian and all of Limburgish have umlaut of long vowels or in case of Limburgish, all rounded back vowels , however.
Consequently, these dialects also make grammatical use of umlaut to form plurals and diminutives, much as most other modern Germanic languages do.
The situation in Old Norse is complicated as there are two forms of i-mutation. Of these two, only one is phonologized. I-mutation is not phonological if the vowel of a long syllable is i-mutated by a syncopated i.
I-mutation does not occur in short syllables. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the linguistic phenomenon in the Germanic languages.
Germanic a-mutation , i-mutation , and u-mutation. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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The Beginnings to , ed. Cambridge University Press, , pp. Proto-Germanic o has been included in this table, however, to ensure that all the outcomes of i-umlaut in the modern languages are accounted for.
Campbell, Old English Grammar Oxford: Welt Online in German. Retrieved 21 April Compare also the development of the tilde as a superscript n.
Retrieved 15 July A Grammar of the German Language. Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. Philology of Germanic languages. Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic grammar Germanic parent language.
Gothic Crimean Gothic Vandalic Burgundian. Retrieved from " https: Assimilation linguistics Vowel shifts German language Linguistic morphology Language histories Indo-European linguistics Germanic languages Germanic philology Sound laws German words and phrases.
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Views Read Edit View history. The umlaut should now appear. Then release all three keys you just pressed and type the letter s.
The key combinations currently defined for that special character on your computer will appear. From the "Insert" menu, choose "Symbol.
Click on the special character you want, and then click on the "Shortcut" option. The computer will tell you if the key combination you choose is already in use.
Use the Unicode Character Numbers. Click on the link for details! This is a program that allows you to create your own keyboard shortcuts in Windows.
It also works with Linux. You can read about and download the program here: This link was sent to me by Andrey Rumyantsev, who wrote the program after years of using the above methods.
Here is a description someone sent me: It also means I can add other shortcuts for common non-German characters without having to switch keyboard layouts.
This only works with Windows or later and the Microsoft.
However, in a small number of words, a vowel affected by i-umlaut is not marked with the umlaut diacritic because its origin is not obvious.
Either there is no unumlauted equivalent or they are not recognized as a pair because the meanings have drifted apart. Conversely, some foreign words have umlaut diacritics that do not mark a vowel produced by the sound change of umlaut.
Here the diacritic is a purely phonological marker, indicating that the English and French sounds or at least, the approximation of them used in German are identical to the native German umlauted sounds.
From the Middle High German, it was sometimes denoted in written German by adding an e to the affected vowel, either after the vowel or, in the small form, above it.
This can still be seen in some names: Goethe , Goebbels , Staedtler. In blackletter handwriting, as used in German manuscripts of the later Middle Ages and also in many printed texts of the early modern period, the superscript e still had a form that would now be recognisable as an e , but in manuscript writing, umlauted vowels could be indicated by two dots since the late medieval period.
In modern handwriting, the umlaut sometimes resembles a tilde , quotation mark , dash , miniature u or other small mark.
Unusual umlaut designs are sometimes also created for graphic design purposes, such as to fit an umlaut into tightly-spaced lines of text.
Although umlaut was not a grammatical process, umlauted vowels often serve to distinguish grammatical forms and thus show similarities to ablaut when viewed synchronically , as can be seen in the English word man.
In ancient Germanic, it and some other words had the plural suffix -iz , with the same vowel as the singular.
As it contained an i , this suffix caused fronting of the vowel, and when the suffix later disappeared, the mutated vowel remained as the only plural marker: In English, such plurals are rare: It also can be found in a few fossilized diminutive forms, such as kitten from cat and kernel from corn , and the feminine vixen from fox.
Umlaut is conspicuous when it occurs in one of such a pair of forms, but there are many mutated words without an unmutated parallel form.
Germanic actively derived causative weak verbs from ordinary strong verbs by applying a suffix, which later caused umlaut, to a past tense form.
Some of these survived into modern English as doublets of verbs, including fell and set vs. Two interesting examples of umlaut involve vowel distinctions in Germanic verbs and often are subsumed under the heading "ablaut" in tables of Germanic irregular verbs.
These verbs exhibit the dental suffix used to form the preterite of weak verbs, and also exhibit what appears to be the vowel gradation characteristic of strong verbs.
When the German philologist Jacob Grimm first attempted to explain the phenomenon, he assumed that the lack of umlaut in the preterite resulted from the reversal of umlaut.
A variety of umlaut occurs in the second and third person singular forms of the present tense of some Germanic strong verbs.
There are, in fact, two distinct phenomena at play here; the first is indeed umlaut as it is best known, but the second is older and occurred already in Proto-Germanic itself.
In both cases, a following i triggered a vowel change, but in Proto-Germanic, it affected only e. The effect on back vowels did not occur until hundreds of years later, after the Germanic languages had already begun to split up: In German, strong verbs which display a back vowel in the past tense undergo umlaut in the subjunctive mood: Again, this is due to the presence of a following i in the verb endings in the Old High German period.
Although umlaut operated the same way in all the West Germanic languages, the exact words in which it took place and the outcomes of the process differ between the languages.
Of particular note is the loss of word-final -i after heavy syllables. That may mean that there was dialectal variation in the timing and spread of the two changes, with final loss happening before umlaut in the south but after it in the north.
On the other hand, umlaut may have still been partly allophonic, and the loss of the conditioning sound may have triggered an "un-umlauting" of the preceding vowel.
Nevertheless, medial -ij- consistently triggers umlaut although its subsequent loss is universal in West Germanic except for Old Saxon and early Old High German.
I-mutation generally affected Old English vowels as follows in each of the main dialects. Vote Promote or demote ideas. View forum View forum without registering on UserVoice.
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Nicole Schnell Vereinigte Staaten Local time: Then release all three keys you just pressed and type the letter s. The key combinations currently defined for that special character on your computer will appear.
From the "Insert" menu, choose "Symbol. Click on the special character you want, and then click on the "Shortcut" option.
The computer will tell you if the key combination you choose is already in use. Use the Unicode Character Numbers. Click on the link for details!
This is a program that allows you to create your own keyboard shortcuts in Windows. It also works with Linux. You can read about and download the program here: